1. Overall Research Purpose

    To inform policy key stakeholders about the promise of SWPBS, the three-tiered framework, on

    1. Creating positive, inclusive and safe school environments
    2. Building training capacity to support such school environments
  2. Main Research Objectives
    Main Research Objectives

    For Primary Prevention (Tier I)

    1. What are the effects of primary prevention on student and teacher outcomes?
    2. To what extent can primary schools implement primary prevention with fidelity with a professional development manual?

    3. For Secondary Prevention (Tier II)

    4. What are the immediate and long-term effects of CICO intervention on student problem behaviors in primary schools already implementing primary prevention?

    5. For Tertiary Prevention (Tier III)

    6. What are the effects of CICO+ intervention on student problem behaviors in primary schools already implementing primary prevention?

  3. Research Methodology

    3.1 For Primary Prevention
    A group of 90 primary schools will be targeted across CY, GR and RO (30 schools per country) to participate in the SWPBS project over a two-year period. Utilizing a randomized wait-list control design, half of the schools will receive intervention (i.e., primary prevention) in Year 1 and the remaining schools will participate in primary prevention in Year 2. All primary schools will implement elements of primary prevention over an 8-month intervention period each year. A total of nine external coaches will be trained to support primary schools. Main measures will include student and teacher perceptions on classroom behavioral climate and problem behaviors in school as well as fidelity assessment. Coaches’ training and technical assistance will be assessed throughout the project duration.

    3.2 For Secondary and Tertiary Prevention
    A series of quantitative experimental single-case research designs will be conducted to examine the effects of additional intervention support (i.e., CICO, CICO+) on students who would not respond to primary prevention. Specifically, for secondary prevention, a multiple-baseline AB design will be utilized to determine any functional relationship between CICO intervention and reduction of student problem behaviors. Main measures will include the percentage of points collected via student individual daily report card and the weekly score on the School Situation Questionnaire. Fidelity checks will be collected throughout the study implementation.

    For tertiary prevention a series of multiple baseline ABC design will be utilized to examine the effects of CICO+ intervention on student chronic problem behaviors. Students will be selected from those students who have been receiving CICO support but do not benefit optimally from CICO. Main measures include the percentage of 10-second intervals recorded with problem behaviors and the daily percentage of points collected via student individual daily report card. Fidelity checks will be conducted throughout study implementation.